Thursday, December 16, 2004

Donna M. Hughes Link to Ladan Pardeshenas (KnownTerrorist Assoiate)

Publication-MAKING THE HARM VISIBLE (fwd): "Publication-MAKING THE HARM VISIBLE (fwd)
by Vera M. Britto
04 April 1999 23:47 UTC

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Date: Sat, 03 Apr 1999 19:10:31 -0500
From: Donna M. Hughes

New Publication
MAKING THE HARM VISIBLE
THE GLOBAL SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF WOMEN AND GIRLS
SPEAKING OUT AND PROVIDING SERVICES
Edited by Donna M. Hughes and Claire M. Roche
Published by The Coalition Against Trafficking in Women
February 1999, 354 pages, $10.00

To order a copy: In the US, send check or money order, payable to The
Coalition
Against Trafficking in Women, for US$14.00 ($10.00 for book, $4.00 for
postage). Outside the US, send a money order, payable to The Coalition
Against
Trafficking in Women, for US$16.00 ($10.00 for book, $6.00 for postage).
Send
order to Donna M. Hughes, 316 Roosevelt Hall, University of Rhode Island,
Rhode
Island, USA 02881.


Making the Harm Visible is a ground breaking collection of writings on the
global sexual exploitation of women and girls by survivors, activists and
service providers. The forty-four pieces from Asia, Africa, Europe, South
America, the Caribbean, North America and the Middle East offer personal,
insightful and challenging perspectives on sexual violence and
prostitution. In
response to the real and profound needs of women and girls throughout the
world, the contributors to this body of work offer an impressive and often
painful body of evidence of the harm caused by sexual exploitation and
violence. They reveal a spectrum of violence and exploitation from a
variety of
cultures and contexts, with the main focus on how prostitution industries
objectify and exploit women and girls. These accounts and reports describe
how
women are resisting the violence done to them as individuals and to the
women
and girls in their communities. They are speaking out, organizing protests,
building programs and movements and providing services to stop the violence,
heal the harm, and prevent future exploitation. The chorus of voices
recorded
in these pages continues the tradition and important work of women in
effecting
social change. The contributors to this volume share the common goal of
ending
violence and the sexual exploitation of women and girls. They are survivors
and
visionaries who are not afraid to confront overwhelming problems and remain
steadfast in their work. Most of them know that their goal is nothing less
than
revolutionary.

Table of Contents
Introduction
Donna M. Hughes
Globalization, Human Rights and Sexual Exploitation
Aida F. Santos
Confronting Trafficking, Prostitution and Sexual Exploitation: The Struggle
for

Survival and Dignity
Aurora Javate de Dios
Prostitution: A Form of Modern Slavery
Dorchen A. Leidholdt
Legalizing Prostitution: Legitimizing Abuse
Donna M. Hughes
The Health Effects of Prostitution
Janice G. Raymond
The Internet and the Global Prostitution Industry
Donna M. Hughes
Why Do Men Buy Women in Prostitution?
Research Project on Men and Prostitution
The Violence of Silence: Survivor Testimony in Political Struggle
Malka Marcovich
Never Be Quiet
Angel Cassidy
Asia
The Sale of Women and Girls to Brothels in Cambodia
Cambodian Women’s Crisis Center
Corregidor Tales
Aida F. Santos
Memories
Aida F. Santos
Trafficking and Prostitution in Bangladesh: Contradictions in Law and
Practice
Sigma Huda
Blazing Trails, Confronting Challenges: The Sexual Exploitation of Women
and
Girls in the Philippines
Aida F. Santos
Support Groups for Survivors of the Prostitution Industry in Manila
Martha Daguno
Africa
Prostitution in Mali
Fatoumata Sire Diakite
Australia
Marketing Women's Sexual Exploitation in Australia
Mary Sullivan
Europe
Russian Women in Norway
Asta Beate Haaland
Legalizing Pimping, Dutch Style
Marie-Victoire Louis
Human Rights: A European Challenge?
Malka Marcovich
Women United Can Make A Difference: The Situation in Spain and the European
Union
Asuncion Miura
Middle East
Iranian Women and Girls: Victims of Exploitation and Violence
Sarvnaz Chitsaz and Soona Samsami
Women’s Activism for Freedom in Iran
Ladan Pardeshenas
North America
You Need Some Place to Escape To
Minerva Kalenandi
They Are Showing Your Face
Victoria Marinelli
Making the Harm Visible
Norma Hotaling
A Commitment to Living
Jill Leighton and Katherine DePasquale
What Happens to Women in Prostitution in the United States
Norma Hotaling
Strip Clubs According to Strippers
Kelly Holsopple
Not Sex Work (A Manifesto)
Victoria Marinelli
Phoenix Rising
Kathleen Mitchell
Breaking Free in Minnesota
Vednita Carter
She Let Me Talk and She Listened
Jill Leighton
Still Alive and Fighting in Canada
Jenny
The First Offender Prostitution Program in San Francisco
Norma Hotaling
I’d Like to Make Us Our Own Quilt
Victoria Marinelli
Surviving Sexual Slavery: Women in Search of Freedom
Christine Grussendorf
South America
Report from Latin America
Zoraida Ramirez Rodriguez
My Experience, I Don’t Want for Anyone
Alexia
The Center for Psycho-Social Rehabilitation in Chile
Marlene Sandoval
Casa de Passagem in Brazil
Ana Vasconcelos
Prostitution and Mothers with Special Needs in Argentina
Claudia Vigil
Preventative Action Against Prostitution in Venezuela Zoraida Ramirez
Rodriguez



Editors:
Donna M. Hughes is the Education and Research Coordinator of the Coalition
Against Trafficking in Women. She holds the Eleanor M. and Oscar M. Carlson
Endowed Chair in Women’s Studies and is the Director of Women’s Studies at
the
University of Rhode Island.
Claire M. Roche is a Ph.D. candidate in Rhetoric and Composition at the
University of Rhode Island.

The Coalition Against Trafficking in Women is a feminist human rights
nongovernmental organization that works internationally to oppose all forms
of
sexual exploitation. Formed in 1989, the Coalition has Category II
Consultative
Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council."

Reuters AlertNet - Iran criticises EU for hosting exile leader speech

Reuters AlertNet - Iran criticises EU for hosting exile leader speech: "Iran criticises EU for hosting exile leader speech
16 Dec 2004 13:37:45 GMT

Source: Reuters

TEHRAN, Dec 16 (Reuters) - Iran on Thursday accused the European Parliament of 'supporting terrorism' by hosting a speech by the leader of an exiled opposition group dedicated to overthrowing the Islamic state's clerical leadership.
Iran's Foreign Ministry said the speech to a private meeting of the parliament by Maryam Rajavi, the self-styled president-elect of the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI), 'is unacceptable and an act in line with supporting terrorism.'
The NCRI is the political arm of the People's Mujahideen guerrilla movement, which the United States and the EU consider a terrorist organisation.
In her speech on Wednesday Rajavi accused the European Union of appeasing Tehran by entering diplomatic negotiations with Iran over its nuclear programme and urged MEPs to support a policy of regime change for Iran.
Rajavi was hosted by Alejo Vidal-Quadras, a vice-president of the European Parliament, and two MEPs who co-chair a group called Friends of a Free Iran, Paulo Casaca of Italy and Struan Stevenson of Britain.
'The European Parliament should be careful that the relations of a few of its members with this group will only discredit the European Parliament and result in a loss of public trust in it,' Iran's Foreign Ministry said in a statement. "

Dehghan, Behjaton on list of Terrorists

References:: "Dehghan, Behjat

Signed Mojahedin-e Khalq letter to Chirac
(http://iranliberty.de/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=299)"

Terrorist Fronts: [AIWUSA] Iranian Women's Brief #49

[fem-women2000 770] [AIWUSA] Iranian Women's Brief #49, Please Read and Pass on: "Subject: [fem-women2000 770] [AIWUSA] Iranian Women's Brief #49, Please Read and Pass on
From: AIWUSA
Date: Mon, 21 Jan 2002 05:50:15 -0500
Seq: 770
AIWUSA-ASSOCIATION OF IRANIAN WOMEN-USA
WEBSITE: http://www.aiwusa.org
E-MAIL: AIWUSA@AIWUSA.ORG
TEL: 703-941-8584

CONTACT PERSON: BEHJAT DEHGHAN
IRANIAN WOMEN'S BRIEF NO.49
JANUARY 2002"

Terrorist Associate Fariba Hashtroudi wins Suspicious Literary Award

news: "An Iranian Woman Receives Literary Human Rights Award - Rivers of Blood
The New Human Rights Award for Literature for the year 2000 was granted to an Iranian woman, Fariba Hashtroudi, an author, journalist and archeologist and a member of the National Council of Resistance of Iran, for her novel, "Les rives du sang (Rivers of Blood)."

The award, an initiative by the New Human Rights Organization, was granted to Ms. Hashtroudi in a ceremony held at Palais de Lassay, site of the French National Assembly, in the presence of a number of ministers, parliamentarians and political and literary personalities of France on Tuesday, October 17.

Ms. Jacqueline Raoul-Duval, member of the jury who decided to grant the award to Fariba Hashtroudi, said, "We admire Fariba Hashtroudi for her professionalism and excellence, but also because she is a woman who has vowed to expose the savagery hidden in the depth of suffering and torture inflicted by the soldiers of the Islamic Revolution on little girls who are legally married at the age of eight, the youngsters who are wrapped in black chadors, the young and old women who are stoned or shot to death, and women who only have the freedom to commit suicide.""

Ladan Pardeshenas -Terrorist

Women's Activism for Freedom in Iran, Making the Harm Visible, Global Sexual Exploitation of Women and Girls, Speaking Out and Providing Services: "Ladan Pardeshenas was born in Shiraz, capital of Fars Province (southwestern Iran) in 1960. She finished her grammar school and high school education in Shiraz. She continued her education at Tabriz University, where she earned a degree in biology.

Her political activities began during her college days. In 1982, Ladan was wounded and then arrested during a demonstration. At the hospital, the doctors, who were Mojahedin supporters, helped her to escape. In summer 1983, she was arrested again and sent to prison. For four years, she regularly underwent torture, as a result of which she required brain surgery. She was taken to the hospital for treatment. During her post-op recovery in the hospital, the Mojahedin were able to rescue her.

Once free, Ladan joined the Mojahedin forces on the western border. In 1994, she was assigned to the Mojahedin’s office in Italy. Since her escape, the Tehran regime has stopped at nothing to terrorize Ladan and members of her family, in and out of Iran. During the Gulf War in 1991, she sent her two sons, aged two and four, to Holland for safekeeping. One of the regime’s agents kidnapped her eldest son while he was living in The Netherlands. A few days later, they threw her four-year-old son to his death from the fourth floor of a building."

NCRI Statement 02/21/99

NCRI Statement 02/21/99: "Iranian Women's Associations in Europe and North America hold annual conference
The annual conference of Iranian Women's Associations in Europe and North America, who support the Iranian Resistance, was held on Saturday, February 20 in Stadthalle, Bad Godesberg in Bonn, Germany. Over 1,500 women from 12 associations in nine countries attended the conference.
The conference was held in two parts. The first was devoted to workshops, dealing with the situation in Iran, especially problems facing women, women's resistance in Iran, the extensive presence of women in the ranks of the National Liberation Army and in political and international scenes, the achievements of women's associations in the past year and the prospects for their activities next year.

The second part of the conference was devoted to speeches. The speakers were Ms. Ingrid Holzhuter, member of German Federal Parliament from the Social Democratic Party; Ms. Sarvnaz Chitsaz, Chairwoman of the NCR's Women's Committee; Ms. Elizabeth Sidney, from Britain's Liberal Democratic Party; Ms. Fariba Hashtroudi, writer, journalist and NCR member; Ms. Zinat Mir Hashemi, central committee member of the Organization of Iranian People's Feda'i Guerrillas, editor of Nabard-e Khalq magazine and NCR member; Ms. Nahid Hematabadi, opera singer and NCR member; Ms. Laurie Wiesberg, President of the Human Rights Internet-Canada, Dr. Beverly Allen from the United States and Ms. Inge Lise-lien, a member of the International Front Against Fundamentalism (IFAF), from Norway.

This section began with a message by Mrs. Maryam Rajavi, the Iranian Resistance's President-elect. Offering her best wishes for the success of the conference, Mrs. Rajavi said: "At a time when the Iranian people and especially women are involved in a life and death struggle against a misogynous regime, your efforts to expose the evil visage of this medieval regime is very necessary and of paramount importance."

The keynote speaker, Ms. Chitsaz, said in part of her speech: "Any effort to seriously change and improve the plight of women in Iran and endeavors to attain equality, inevitably passes through the overthrow of the misogynous regime ruling the country. So long as the clerical regime stays in power, misogyny, suppression and discrimination against women continue. Thus, one can be effective on the path to realizing women's rights to the extent that one is working to topple the theocratic regime ruling Iran."

Ms. Chitsaz added: "Two decades of Resistance against the mullahs' bloody regime was accompanied by the birth, progress and maturity of a generation of Mojahedin women who undertook the greatest responsibilities in this resistance by eliminating all reactionary restrictions. In theory and practice, they succeeded in removing historical obstacles, which many were even afraid of thinking about them."

In the conference, a manifest was adopted which presented the most important outlines of the political line and activities of these associations for next year. The manifest read in part: "The realization of Iranian women's rights is possible only with the overthrow of the clerical regime and the establishment of a democratic system. Any effort aimed at attaining women's rights and equality is realistic only through joining or supporting the nationwide Resistance. Disseminating any illusion about 'improvement in the situation of women' under Khatami, calls to work within the 'framework of the regime's laws' or talk of a 'legal women's movement' are actions totally against the Iranian people and especially against women. We strongly condemn them. Those who deliberately or unconsciously promote such propaganda are in fact in the service of the ruling clique."

A large number of parliamentarians, distinguished human rights personalities and activists in the women's movement, unable to attend the conference, sent messages to declare their support for this conference and its outcome.

Secretariat of the National Council of Resistance of Iran
February 21, 1999
"

Soona Samsami - Terrorist

Iranian Women and Girls - Victims of Exploitation and Violence, Making the Harm Visible, Global Sexual Exploitation of Women and Girls, Speaking Out and Providing Services: "Soona Samsami is the US Representative of the National Council of Resistance of Iran. Born November 14, 1959 in Isfahan, Iran, Ms. Samsami came to the United States in 1979 and in 1982 graduated in City Planning from Michigan State University. In December 1992, she was elected to the Iranian Resistance’s parliament-in-exile, the National Council of Resistance of Iran.

In 1994, Ms. Samsami spoke at the U.N. Human Rights Commission in Geneva. In 1996, she coordinated exiled women’s organizations at the World Conference of Women in Beijing, China. In 1997, she spoke at the Front-line Feminism seminar at the University of California at Riverside. In 1998, Ms. Samsami was a member of a panel of speakers at the U.S. Congress in a briefing on U.S. policy on Iran. Also in 1998, she administrated efforts among the Iranian-American community to elicit a statement in support of the Iranian Resistance, signed by a majority in the House of Representatives.

In 1998, the NCR President appointed Ms. Samsami as the NCR’s U.S. Representative."

Sarvnaz Chitsaz - Terrorist

Iranian Women and Girls - Victims of Exploitation and Violence, Making the Harm Visible, Global Sexual Exploitation of Women and Girls, Speaking Out and Providing Services: "Sarvnaz Chitsaz is currently the chairwoman of the National Council of Resistance of Iran’s Committe on Women. Prior to her appointment, she was the NCR’s U.S. Representative.

Born in 1957 in the capital city of Tehran, Ms. Chitsaz is one of the most effective of the Resistance’s political officials, and was one of the movement’s first women to take on an active role in international political circles. She has represented the Resistance in numerous international conferences and seminars, and regularly meets with foreign dignitaries and officials to acquaint them with the views of the Iranian Resistance and its President-elect. She works especially closely with women’s organizations in countries around the world.

Ms. Chitsaz studied political science in the United States at Iowa State University. After the revolution of 1979, she became active in politics in the movement led by the People’s Mojahedin Organization of Iran, which had emerged as the democratic opposition to fundamentalist rule. From 1981-84, she campaigned on behalf of the Resistance in various regions of the U.S. Her commitment and work on behalf of the movement continued, and in December 1992, she was elected to the Iranian Resistance’s parliament-in-exile, the National Council of Resistance of Iran.
"

Congressional Record Links Ackerman, Ros-Lehtinen,Traficant, Menendez and Towns to Terrorism

: "U.S. POLICY TOWARDS IRAN: A ONE-YEAR REVIEW -- HON. GARY L. ACKERMAN (Extension of Remarks - June 03, 1998)

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[Page: E1000] GPO's PDF

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HON. GARY L. ACKERMAN

in the House of Representatives

WEDNESDAY, JUNE 3, 1998


Mr. ACKERMAN. Mr. Speaker, I rise to bring to the attention of my colleagues a very important matter. The last week of May marked the first anniversary of the election of the so-called `moderate' president of Iran. I think it is very important after one year of President Mohammed Khatami's rule to look closely at the facts in evaluating his administration's true colors. Some of you may have seen the press reports from the `Briefing on U.S. Policy Options and Prospects for Change in Iran' that I co-hosted on May 21 along with my colleagues Mrs. Ros-Lehtinen, Mr. Traficant, Mr. Menendez and Mr. Towns. Our effort was aimed at advocating an Iran policy of firmness and resolve, which allies the United States with the Iranian people and their resistance movement, the National Council of Resistance of Iran.

The impressive turnout for the event, especially among members of the diplomatic corps, indicated to me that the call to scrutinize our Iran policy was timely. Just this past week, Khatami underscored the role of the Revolutionary Guards Corps in maintaining the regime in its totality and said it represented the regime's most pious and dedicated forces. `With our body and soul, we are all proud of the Guards Corps,' Khatami said in praising the regimes' main organ of suppression, rendering hollow his claims of `freedom and civil society.' This further proves the assessment of the speakers during our briefing that Khatami has neither the interest nor the influence to initiate any change in this theocratic regime.

Mr. Speaker, in light of the importance of this discussion, I submit my remarks entitled `One Year of Khatami,' as well as the remarks of Ms. Soona Samsami, a representative of the National Council of Resistance in Washington, to be printed herewith in the Congressional Record.
I would like to first welcome all the members of the diplomatic corps and the press for joining us here today to mark the one year anniversary of President Mohammad Khatami's election. We have a very interesting forum scheduled, and once everyone completes their statements, we will open up for questions and answers. First, I'd like to introduce my colleague Representative Ileana Ros-Lehtinen from Florida, with whom I've worked on this issue long and hard. Unfortunately, she must leave early so she will get this briefing started with her remarks.

After her we will hear from Congressmen Bob Menendez, Jim Traficant and Ed Towns, as well as former Ambassador James Akins, and lastly from Soona Samsami who will be representing the National Council of Resistance of Iran.

Representative Ros-Lehtinen.

When Mohammad Khatami was elected president a year ago, many in the West insisted that he was a genuine reformer who would, while upholding the clerics' reign, would begin halting state terrorism, would begin an end to enmity to the Middle East peace process, a lessening of flagrant abuses of human rights and the stoppage of the stockpiling of weapons of mass destruction.

I'm sorry to say that some in our administration bought into that view. Travel restrictions to Iran by American citizens have been relaxed a bit, and most recently, the administration has just waived punitive action, as required by law, against 3 foreign oil corporations who plan to invest more than $2 billion dollars in the Iranian oil industry.

Unfortunately, it is clear that some policy-makers have learned little about the brutal thug mentality of those who rule in Iran. When this year's State Department report on terrorism named Tehran the number-one state sponsor of terrorism, Iran's ruling mullahs openly and celebriously acknowledged responsibility for the terrorist attacks listed in the report, declaring that they not only pursued and attacked the Iranian Resistance, on foreign soil, but that they expected to be rewarded for what they called `combating terrorism.'

Let me make it very clear we are hard pressed to find any moderates with whom we can reach out to in the Iranian government, and contrary to the hopes of many in the West, Mr. Khatami's election a year ago has not resulted in any positive changes in Iran's domestic or foreign policies. It has, however, gravely aggravated the infighting among rivals. In fact, we all read recently about the arrest of Tehran's mayor, a close affiliate of Khatami, just this past month. It is no secret that the conflicts among the rival camps are intensifying with each passing day.

You may have also noticed news reports just this past weekend that the Government of Argentina arrested 8 Iranian residents and ordered the expulsion of 7 of the Iranian embassy's staff of 8 and required them to leave by yesterday. The 1992 bombing of the Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires, as well as the 1994 bombing of the AMIA, the city's main Jewish community center, has been investigated by the Argentineans, aided by the F.B.I., and has found the trail leads to Tehran. 114 people lost their lives in these horrific terrorist attacks.

Many of you however do not know that one of the key sources for the evidence that linked Tehran's government to the community center bombing was the National Council of Resistance, which learned from its sources in Iran that the bombing had reportedly been ordered by Iran's Supreme National Security Council. The NCR reported its findings to a congressional subcommittee, which then forwarded the information to the State Department. Last month, I personally brought this information to Argentina.

Ironically enough, the Iranian Resistance is the very same movement that the Department has added to its list of terrorists, virtually turning the intent of the law upon it on its head. This same list contains unquestionably terrorist groups such as Hizbollah and Hamas. This ill-advised `goodwill gesture,' as it was thus quoted by a senior administration official in the L.A. Times last October, has profound implications. By mis-labeling the main resistance force against the ayatollahs, we are not helping the Iranian people in their legitimate cause. Goodwill gestures will achieve little, and will only serve to embolden the Iranian mullahs to continue their non-stop campaign of terror and repression--both inside and outside of Iran. Under the current circumstances, Tango-ing with Tehran's tyrants will lead nowhere. I think it's interesting to note however that the idea behind the State Department's publishing a list of terrorists was to isolate the exact brand of terrorism that the Tehran regime actually supports and provokes! Even more importantly, and contrary to some expectations, the regime's opposition to the Middle East peace process has not slackened one bit. In fact, just a few weeks ago, the founder of Hamas, Sheikh Yassin, was in Iran on an official visit. President Khatami met with him, and expressed his support for the terrorist group. Prior to that, senior Hizbollah officials also traveled to Iran, for meetings with the top leaders. Officials, including Khatami, have emphasized that they will continue their active opposition to the peace process, and will not rest until the complete destruction of the State of Israel. Nor will the mullahs ever be satisfied with our gestures. The old adage of `give em and inch, they'll take a mile' certainly applies here.

I think what we have seen in the past year since Khatami's election has been the absolute inability of the mullocracy to reform. Khatami has been part of this system, and understands full well that any move towards liberalization contradicts the regime in its entirety. Fortunately, there are signs that this is the end of an era.

Infighting has engulfed both the military structure, meaning the Revolutionary Guards, as well as the clerical hierarchy. These are all promising signs that the mullahs' repression and dictatorship may be nearing an end. Nonetheless, we need to continue a sound policy of isolating Iran. We certainly can not begin to ease up now, just as the sanctions are beginning to bite and Iran's rulers are desperate for economic relief. That would be a travesty and undermine all of the good we have striven to accomplish. We need to realize that this new president is no more moderate than his predecessors. We must retreat from this illusion before it is too late.

And for that very reason, we in Congress shall continue to advocate an Iran policy of firmness and resolve. The realities of Iran dictate that the United States must recognize the right of the Iranian people to resist, and its own moral obligation to keep a distance from this medieval and utterly oppressive regime. A proper policy must take stock of the continuing realities in Iran, with the realization that the Iranian Resistance presents some new prospects for a change in government. Instead of trying to shore up a sinking ship, we must quickly ally ourselves with the Iranian people and Resistance, whose democratic, pluralistic and secular platform makes for a far better lasting solution with the retrogressive and brutal ruling regime.

Ladies and Gentlemen, I would now like to introduce our next speaker, Ambassador James Akins. Ambassador Akins served our Nation's Foreign Service with great distinction for over 20 years, until his retirement in 1976. He spent much of his career in the Middle Ease--in postings such as Damascus, Beirut, Kuwait, Baghdad and Saudia Arabia--and has written numerous articles about the subject. He is now an international and economic consultant and still maintains very close ties to the region he knows so very well. Ambassador Akins.


--

[Page: E1001] GPO's PDF
Ladies and gentlemen, I am very pleased to have this opportunity today to address this gathering. The situation in Iran is changing rapidly, as the dark era of suppression, execution, stoning, fundamentalism and terrorism comes to an end. But these changes are not originating from within the regime or the administration of Mohammad Khatami, in whom some in the West have great hopes. The source of these changes is the Iranian people and their Resistance.

Two weeks ago, one of the southern neighborhoods of the capital city of Tehran erupted, as 10,000 people protested against the killing of 16 year-old street vendor at the hands of the Revolutionary Guards. The unrest continued for four hours. Chanting `death to Khamenei, death to Khatami,' the crowds clashed with state security forces. A number of government buildings were damaged.

Protests and unrest are spreading throughout the country. Late last week thousands of people in western Iran, in Kermanshah, staged a similar demonstration. Fighting broke out among the public and Revolutionary Guards.

The turmoil in Tehran had not yet subsided when unrest, strikes and student protests broke out in Gilan Province in the north, the cities of Yassouj and Dezful in the southwest, Tabass in eastern Iran, and Isfahan in the central part of the country. A major labor strike has been going on for the past several weeks in the provincial capital of Rasht. Dozens of workers have been arrested, but the strikes are continuing. The regime's leaders are very uneasy about the implications of this unrest for the future. Let me give you a couple of examples:

On May 14, Khamenei was speaking about the recent demonstrations in Isfahan Province, when he directly pointed to the Mojahedin as the source of the unrest.

In remarks he delivered in Sistan-Baluchistan Province in the south, Khatami explained, `We are threatened by the Mojahedin and Zionists.'

The Parliament Speaker, Nateq Nourri, reiterated Khamenei's warnings on May 17, telling the assembly: `In Isfahan, what's left of the Mojahedin are active. . . We must all stay alert, and stay away from matters that have to do with groups and factions, which would allow a third party to come in and grab the Revolution itself and run off with it.'

The Parliament Speaker continued: `These conspiracies are not just taking place in Isfahan; these are unpatriotic actions, threatening national security. The security apparatus needs to get in there and deal with this in a serious manner. We should stop worrying about what the foreigners are going to say to us. . . America, the Monafequin [Mojahedin] . . . they have essentially invested in the universities, where they can use the pro-western intellectuals, and take advantage of the open atmosphere to hatch some plots.'

In a meeting on May 16 with the Bassij forces, Rafsanjani urged them to `neutralize the plots of the agents of the Arrogance and the Monafequin [Mojahedin].'

Khamenei said on April 16: `The enemies sending out propaganda from abroad. . . are pursing a policy of divisiveness. . . We must beware, we must beware.'

Tehran's Friday prayer leader said on April 10: `These disorders are like a tank full of gasoline. . . All the enemy has to do is to strike a match.'

Mokaram Shirazi, another of the regime's mullahs, said on April 12: `In the not too distant future, we shall witness a major crisis. . . or a painful scandal.'

The executive director of the regime's Supreme National Security Council said on April 13: `There will be no winner in this crisis, but there will be a big loser--the Islamic system.'

On May 23, 1997, when Khatami was elected president, there were many in the West claiming that from now on, the regime would follow the path of moderation. But from the very first, the Iranian Resistance was convinced that the new developments would weaken and further divide the regime internally. Moderation and reform would never happen. A year later, this has become an indisputable fact.

Crisis after crisis, without any prospect of a solution, pretty much sums up the past year. The arrest and then release of Tehran's mayor created an unprecedented emergency, which was only brought under temporary control through the intervention of Khamenei. The underlying crisis has not been resolved, however.

Agence France Presse wrote in its analysis that `there is still a long way to go before the war ends between the two sides. . . The conflict between the
two warring factions subsided only after shaking the foundations of the regime as a whole.' The news report adds that everyone was afraid that `the whole regime would be harmed.'

A diplomat in Tehran had this to say: `Throughout this nation's history, it has been shown that spontaneous street demonstrations in Iran can overthrow a government or regime.'

The commander of Iran's Revolutionary Guards threatened recently to crack down on a wave of internal dissent and criticism, saying it jeopardized the country's security. `The universities are in the hands of the opposition, and young people are chanting `death to despots.' We have to behead some and cut off the tongues of others,' he said.

Within the clerical hierarchy, there is increasing opposition to the ruling clique, which has failed to eliminate Montazeri, the former successor to Khomeini, from the picture. In terms of religious credentials, Montazeri outranks all of the ruling regime's officials. He was shelved in 1988 by Khomeini after he protested the massacres of Mojahedin. In his correspondence with Khomeini at the time, he had written: `You cannot annihilate the Mojahedin with executions. They are an idea. Killing them will only spread their ideas.'

Despair and apathy have taken their toll on the Revolutionary Guards, the regime's principal military force. Three of the corps top 6 commanders, and at least 150 other officers have resigned. If we consider the Revolutionary Guards' unique role in safeguarding and prolonging the regime, the gravity of this crisis becomes clear. Tehran's rulers are in dire need of a foreign crisis they can use to shore up their eroding forces.

At the same time, the regime is facing a profusion of economic problems. Projections for oil revenues in the mullahs' budget exceed 16 billion dollars, but the actual figure is hardly 10 billion dollars. Inflation is increasing with each passing day, and with it the pressure on the public. 80% of the populace is living below the poverty line. Meanwhile, corruption and embezzlement scandals involving billions of toumans are rampant throughout the regime.

Policy Options: Here in Washington, there have been a number of discussions over the past year about various approaches to Iran. Some people in this city are saying that Khatami is different than other mullahs, and America should officially recognize these differences. Of course, this is a coy way of promoting the sort of appeasement policy that ended in the Irangate scandal a decade ago. Appeasement was at the heart of the administration's Iran policy over the past year.

But if you will permit me, let's be realistic. Contrary to America's expectations, Tehran did not make any changes in its policies of terrorism and fundamentalism. In fact, after the State Department published its annual report on terrorism, naming Tehran the world's most active state sponsor, the mullahs took responsibility for the entire list of their terrorist acts, especially their attacks on the Mojahedin.

The distinguishing characteristic of this theocratic regime, which sets it apart from all other dictatorships of the twentieth century, is its export of terrorism and fundamentalism. If the mullahs take a step back in this direction, they will lose their ability to enforce the domestic suppression as well. Before they can transform themselves into a modern, twentieth-century dictatorship, they will be swept aside by the Iranian people.

The inability of certain circles in America to comprehend this stubborn reality is behind the notion that you can turn the anti-human rulers of Iran into moderates. The events taking place in Iran today signal the weakness and disarray of the regime and the prospects of its overthrow, not some sort of trend toward liberalism. Goodwill gestures by the U.S. government, such as the inclusion of the Mojahedin on its list of terrorist organizations, will only serve to goad the regime on, and to give the Iranian people the negative impression that once again, the U.S. government is on the wrong side.

This is the same mistake made almost twenty years ago, during the last year of the Shah's reign. President Carter referred to the Shah's Iran as an `island of stability,' and the British Foreign Secretary at the time stressed Britain's full support for the monarchy up until the final months. At that same time, western intelligence agencies said that Iran was not in the revolutionary stage, or even the pre-revolutionary stage. I don't think I need to remind you of what happened next. Today, the circumstances are similar. Events are happening very quickly in Iran, and it seems that the U.S. is not keeping up with them. As the leader of the Iranian Resistance has stated, the Iranian people will not recognize any contracts signed to find and drill Iranian oil.

The conflicts and clashes between various bands in the regime are a reality that will not go away. The most fundamental and essential conflict in Iran, however, is between the people--who desire freedom and democracy--and the religious, terrorist dictatorship ruling over them, whose survival depends on denying the people's demands. Despite an absolute repression, these demands have been embodied in a nationwide resistance movement. It is no accident that the regime's most viscous forms of repression are practiced on the resistance at home. Even abroad, beyond its terrorist attacks, the regime's primary demand from its international trading partners is that they adopt an anti-resistance, and specifically anti-Mojahedin policy."

FOXNews.com - Federal appeals court says National Council of Resistance is a Terrorist Group

FOXNews.com - Politics - Opposition Group: Iran Has Biological Weapons: "The National Council of Resistance has challenged its designation as a terrorist group, saying it has only been listed in a U.S attempt to appease elements within the Iranian government.

But a federal appeals court said last week that a review of public records was enough to convict the group "even without repairing to the classified information submitted to the court."
"

Democratic Rep. Gary Ackerman of New York Linked to Terrorist Group

FarsiNet News - News related to Iran, Iranians and Persians - October 2000: "US Congress Members Call for Change in Iran Policy

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - A majority of members of the House of Representatives and more than 20 senators Wednesday called for tougher U.S. policies toward Iran, saying Tehran continues to violate human rights and President Mohammad Khatami has failed to bring about any improvement.
Some 225 House members and 28 senators said hundreds of executions, torture, attacks on dissidents abroad and the recent trial by an Islamic court of 13 Iranian Jews behind closed doors 'lead us to conclude that any talk of political openness or moderation is ill advised.' The lawmakers, who included Democrats and Republicans, urged the U.S. State Department to drop its policy of quiet rapprochement with Tehran and provide recognition and support for the National Council of Resistance of Iran, an opposition group trying to topple the ruling theocracy in Tehran.
'With the statement we are releasing today, a majority of members of the House are making clear that our Iran policy must be changed to reflect the genuine desires of the Iranian people,' declared Democratic Rep. Gary Ackerman of New York, one of the leaders of the Congressional group. 'Now is not the time for American policy to go mushy.'
Many in Congress have grown disillusioned with Khatami's record in office and failure to press Iran's conservative religious leadership to reform. AGGRESSIVE NUCLEAR PROGRAM
Lawmakers are also angry and frustrated at what they see as Iran's continued support for terrorism and its aggressive nuclear weapons program, which has surged ahead in recent years with technological help from Russia and other nations. 'Not one of the United States' conditions for improving ties, namely Iran's ceasing its human rights abuses, support for terrorism"

Florida Republican Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen linked to Terrorist Group

FarsiNet News - News related to Iran, Iranians and Persians - October 2000: "US Congress Members Call for Change in Iran Policy

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - A majority of members of the House of Representatives and more than 20 senators Wednesday called for tougher U.S. policies toward Iran, saying Tehran continues to violate human rights and President Mohammad Khatami has failed to bring about any improvement.
Some 225 House members and 28 senators said hundreds of executions, torture, attacks on dissidents abroad and the recent trial by an Islamic court of 13 Iranian Jews behind closed doors "lead us to conclude that any talk of political openness or moderation is ill advised." The lawmakers, who included Democrats and Republicans, urged the U.S. State Department to drop its policy of quiet rapprochement with Tehran and provide recognition and support for the National Council of Resistance of Iran, an opposition group trying to topple the ruling theocracy in Tehran.

"With the statement we are releasing today, a majority of members of the House are making clear that our Iran policy must be changed to reflect the genuine desires of the Iranian people," declared Democratic Rep. Gary Ackerman of New York, one of the leaders of the Congressional group. "Now is not the time for American policy to go mushy."

Many in Congress have grown disillusioned with Khatami's record in office and failure to press Iran's conservative religious leadership to reform. AGGRESSIVE NUCLEAR PROGRAM

Lawmakers are also angry and frustrated at what they see as Iran's continued support for terrorism and its aggressive nuclear weapons program, which has surged ahead in recent years with technological help from Russia and other nations. "Not one of the United States' conditions for improving ties, namely Iran's ceasing its human rights abuses, support for terrorism, pursuit of weapons of mass destruction and opposition to the peace process has been met, yet the administration has decided to waive many of the economic penalties prescribed by law," said Florida Republican Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen.

Lawmakers cited a crackdown on the press, suppression of student demonstrations, torture of political prisoners and a rise in the number of executions as evidence that Khatami's presidency had brought no positive changes. "Such savage punishments continue to be meted out under President Mohammad Khatami," the statement said. "It has also become clear that contrary to some accounts in the West, the parliamentary election in Iran was neither free nor fair, but designed to reinforce the ruling system." The growing pressure in Congress for Washington to take a harder line with Tehran follows a similar move in the British parliament where 335 members signed a statement in June calling for political and trade relations with Tehran to be made conditional on Iran's respect for human rights.

Members of the U.S. Congress urged the State Department to immediately remove the National Council of Resistance of Iran, the political wing of the Iraq-based Mujahideen Khalq armed group, from its list of "terrorist" organizations. "The State Department is completely closing its eyes to reality," said Soona Samsami, the council's representative in the United States. "This (congressional action) gives it some balance.""

Florida Republican Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen Terrorist Tool

FarsiNet News - News related to Iran, Iranians and Persians - October 2000: "AGGRESSIVE NUCLEAR PROGRAM

Lawmakers are also angry and frustrated at what they see as Iran's continued support for terrorism and its aggressive nuclear weapons program, which has surged ahead in recent years with technological help from Russia and other nations. "Not one of the United States' conditions for improving ties, namely Iran's ceasing its human rights abuses, support for terrorism, pursuit of weapons of mass destruction and opposition to the peace process has been met, yet the administration has decided to waive many of the economic penalties prescribed by law," said Florida Republican Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen. Lawmakers cited a crackdown on the press, suppression of student demonstrations, torture of political prisoners and a rise in the number of executions as evidence that Khatami's presidency had brought no positive changes.

"Such savage punishments continue to be meted out under President Mohammad Khatami," the statement said. "It has also become clear that contrary to some accounts in the West, the parliamentary election in Iran was neither free nor fair, but designed to reinforce the ruling system."

The growing pressure in Congress for Washington to take a harder line with Tehran follows a similar move in the British parliament where 335 members signed a statement in June calling for political and trade relations with Tehran to be made conditional on Iran's respect for human rights. Members of the U.S. Congress urged the State Department to immediately remove the National Council of Resistance of Iran, the political wing of the Iraq-based Mujahideen Khalq armed group, from its list of "terrorist" organizations. "The State Department is completely closing its eyes to reality," said Soona Samsami, the council's representative in the United States. "This (congressional action) gives it some balance.""

Donna M. Hughes, University of Rhode Island

Donna M. Hughes, Carlson Endowed Chair, University of Rhode Island: "Donna M. Hughes, Ph.D.

Professor & Eleanor M. and Oscar M. Carlson Endowed Chair

Women's Studies Program
University of Rhode Island

Media Credit: Diana Thovmasian

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Donna M. Hughes does research and writing on - and for - women's rights. Her topic areas include: violence, slavery, sexual exploitation, Islamic fundamentalism, and women's organized resistance to violence and exploitation. She also works on issues related to women, science and technology.
She is frequently consulted by governments and non-governmental organizations on policy related to women's human rights, particularly on trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation.

Her research has been supported by the U.S. State Department, the National Institute of Justice, the National Science Foundation, the Association of American Colleges and Universities, the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation, the International Organization for Migration, the Council of Europe, the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women, the Rhode Island Board of Governors for Higher Education, University of Rhode Island Foundation, the University of Rhode Island Council for Research, and the University of Bradford, UK.

Publications

Trafficking, Slavery, and Sexual Exploitation

Research Reports
Opinion and Analysis Articles
Transcripts and Texts of Speeches

Islamic Fundamentalism and Women's Rights

Violence Against Women and Children

Women, Science and Technology
© 2004 Disclaimer


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Donna M. Hughes
316 Eleanor Roosevelt Hall
Phone: 401-874-2757 Fax: 401-874-4527
E-Mail: dhughes@uri.edu"

National Committee of Women for a Democratic Iran

The NCWO Roster of Member Organizations: "National Committee of Women for a Democratic Iran
1718 M St. Suite 291, Washington, DC, 20036
Phone: 202-726-3653 | Fax:
Email: ncwdi@igc.org
Website: www.igc.org/ncwdi

Principal Staff:
(President)
Nilofar Hafezi (member)
Robab Baraie (member)

Type of Organization: National Grassroots/Advocacy
Founded: 1990

Mission Statement:
The National Committee of Women for Democratic Iran is a non-profit organization formed to fill the vaccum of a women’s organization devoted sepecifically to monitoring women’s rights in Iran.

Our tasks range from accurate reporting, to public appearances, to engaging in discussion and exchange with relevant authoritative bodies and institutes.

Our activities follow these objectives:

To inform the public and human rights community of the deplorable abuse of the rights of Iranian women under the mullah’s regime. To advocate observance and implementation of internationally accepted standards of human rights, in particular those pertaining to women, by disseminating information to interested individuals and groups. To heighten the awareness of Iranian women of their inviolable rights, as guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international covenants.

Subject Expertise:
Human rights in Iran, Violence against women in Iran Islamic Fundamentalism Terrorism targeting women

Annual Meetings/Conferences:
Annual Event on International Women´s day."